1.1. Basal area calculations
See page PraleStat software
1.2. Fitted height calculations
See page PraleStat software
1.3. Timber volume calculations
See page PraleStat software
1.4. Basic mensurational outputs
The PraleStat software processes calculations of basal area, fitted height, timber volume and tabelar syntheses into two Output sets.
Output set 1: See example [PDF: 70 kB]
Incluces: Number of stems, basal area, fitted height, timber volume by diameter class, by species, by decomposition degree (lying dead stems). One set refers to one locality and one year.
Output set 2: See example [PDF: 64 kB]
Includes: Number of stems, basal area, fitted height, timber volume for all diameter classes in total. One set compares more time sections of one locality.
Unlike PralesStat software, MS Excel software is used to construct graphs.
2.1. Phytocenological releve processing
Approach to data processing is individual. It depends on data file character. Except the current stand evaluation, the forest phytocenoses‘ developmental dynamics could be considered. Releve‘s affiliation to the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology (MORAVEC et al. 1995, NEUHÄUSLOVÁ et al. 1998) and to the forest type system of UHUL (ANONYMUS 1971/1976) is to be evaluated. The Ellenberg values are calculated for releve (ELLENBERG et al. 1992) and also ecological plant classes representation (PRŮŠA 2001). The similarity index (SÖRENSEN 1948 in MORAVEC et al. 1994, JACCARD 1901 in MORAVEC et al. 1994) is computed for repeated registrations on a releve.
The software product Turboveg for Windows 1.98a (HENNEKENS et SCHAMINÉE 2001) is used for phytocenological data storage and management.
In field used classification have to be transfered into database via these key:
- 1 – Overstorey trees; trees higher than mainstorey trees.
- 2 – Mainstorey trees; mainstorey includes trees fitting by their tops mainstorey trees too.
- 3 – Understorey trees – trees higher than the half of the mainstorey height, nevertheless their crowns do not reach to mainstorey crown level.
- 4 – Understorey woods with tree-growth species and shrubs from height of 1.3 m up to half height of mainstorey.
- 5 – Wood species up to a height of 1.3 m – this layer could be divided to:
- 5.1 – Individual conifers with one lateral shoot, deciduous individual broadleaves without cotyledons.
- 5.1a – Woody species of height ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 m.
- 5.1b – Woody species up to a height of 0.2 m, individual conifers with at least one lateral shoot, individual broadleaves without cotyledons.
- 5.2 – Seedlings. Total cover of a storey in [%] of studied area related to total releve area is recorded for each storey on the species.
The 6th floor is represented by Herb layer, the 9th floor by Moss layer.
Transfer way considerably affects quality of output, primarily using the ordinary approach, unlike using the pseudospecies in case of Twinspan classification.
The software product Juice vs. 6 (TICHÝ 2002) is used for:
- the synoptical table creation
- the species‘ fidelity calculation („Phi“ coeficient – CHYTRÝ et al. 2002)
- diagnostic/constant/dominant species determination
- TWINSPAN numeric classification.
Except the classification methods, the ordinary ones are used. To get ordinary analyses, the software product Canoco vs.4 (CanoDraw vs. 4 fo graphic outputs) is used (Ter Braak et Šmilauer 2002). Direct and undirect ordinary procedures (DCA, RDA, CCA) meet methods of Lepše et Šmilauer (2000) and Herben et Münzbergová (2001). Affiliation of releve to forest type units, to year of processing and to developmental stage are used as the „varying environments“ (incl. unmentioned exposure, slope and elevation). The individual „varying environments“ are statistically tested via tools of Canoco software (Monte Carlo test).
2.2. Pedological data processing
Soil analyses are processed using standard procedures (ZBÍRAL 2002, 2003, VALLA et al. 2002 etc.) in credential laboratories (Agency of Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection of the Czech Republic). For relevant soil type or diagnostic horizon appropriate analyses are to be chosen from this list:
- Soil reaction (active and exchange – KCl)
- Oxidizable C (titration)
- Loss of ignition
- Total N, humus quality (Q4/6 spectrophotometrically)
- Exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na (+ Fe, Al) with use BaCl2. P determined by extraction with Mehlich II (newly all exchangeable nutrients +Al, Fe with Mehlich III)
- Sorption complex and exchangeable acidity
- Leaching by 2 M HNO3 and aqua-regia for determination of risk elements (+Al, Fe, Hg with spectrometer AMA)
- Active Al according to Sokolov
- Microbiological and biochemical analyses (only in case of organic and organo-mineral horizons – N dynamics, respiration activity, celulose test, nutritive agar, starch agar, Thorton’s agar, Jansen’s agar, Ashby’s agar)
From the soil dynamics‘ point of view, the grain composition seedm to be relatively stable – changes in order of 100 years (Blum et Varallyay 2004). Analyses are made for newly included soil profiles using pipette method (unstandard fraction: > 0,25 mm, 0,1-0,25 mm, < 0,05 mm, < 0,01 mm, 0,002 mm, 0,001 mm). Greater number of determinations is useful for upcoming evaluation (triangle diagram - Němeček et al. 2001 etc.) and for results‘ comparison with the older analyses. On locality soil conditions are finally evaluated using qualitative and quantitative indicators. Soil features are refered to other ecosystem components. Comparing with previous investigations, the dynamics of soil conditions could be evaluated.
Forest stand composition is evaluated with the assistance of Zlatník‘s vertical structure of woody layer (Randuška et al. 1986) and verbally annotated. Evaluation of developmental stages and phases is taken into consideration their number, size range, dynamics. Verbal annotation used to be added too.
- Detailed stem map (scale 1 : 1000) - distinguished stems by species, diameter class, growth character, vitality character; surveyed polygons of natural regeneration, permanent research plots, permanent typological plots, transects.
- Overview maps of natural regeneration dynamics, developmental stages and phases, forest type maps.
- Transect maps.