Research

METHODOLOGY

TERMINOLOGY

List of Abbreviations

GIS Geographic information system
CHKO Protected landscape area
LHC Management-plan area
LHP Forest management plan
LT Forest site type
LVS Altitudinal vegetation zone
NP National park
NPP National nature monument
NPR National nature reserve
PP Nature monument
PR Nature reserve
SLT Row of forest site types
TTP Permanent typological plot
ÚHÚL Forest management institute Brandýs nad Labem
ZCHÚ Specially protected area

List of Terms


Bent - Stems heavily bent due to e.g. slope displacement.
If the stems are not characterized otherwise, the basal area and stem volume calculations are made in an identical way as those for standing live stems. The term is used for a better orientation at field work with the map.


Breakage - A still living tree with a part of the main stem missing. Its height si measured from 1.5 m upwards. If the height of the breakage is not mentioned in the database, the calculation is made as average height according to the flow sheet of heghts since the missing part is neglibible or the tree has already developed a substitute top and made up for the original loss of height.


Burr - Any unnatural formation of tumorous, myomatic, etc. origin occurring of the stem.
If the stems are not characterized otherwise, the basal area and stem volume calculations are made in an identical way as those for standing live stems. The term is used for a better orientation at field work with the map.


Dead standing tree - An entirely dead standing tree with the preserved main stem.


Five-stem tree - An individual with five stems. Item see Twin-stem tree.


Four-stem tree - An individual with four stems. Item see Twin-stem tree.


Lying stem - A lying main tree stem or its part without the root system. Its graphic expression is the tree mark and the line representing the lying stem. There are three stages of disintegration distinguished in the lying stems:
- hard: The species is still recognizable, the stem usually still has bark and relatively healthy and hard wood.
- touchwood: The species can usually still be identified, the wood is not compact any more along the entire stem length with the core or outer mantle subjected to rot (in trees that fell healthy due to events such as wind and are in contact with soil environment), falling rough bark.
- disintegrated: The wood is at a stage of advanced rot, the species cannot be identified any more, a kick into a stem results in stem breakage, there are often just “little graves“ with the patch vegetation.


Natural forest - A forest developed through natural processes but affected by man in the past (especially by selective cutting and by grazing – not by planting or sowing). Both its species composition and spatial structure usually correspond to site conditions but may also differ at sporadic places e.g. due to spontaneous development under modified conditions (e.g. after partial stumping in the medieval times after which the forests were left to their further long-term spontaneous development etc.).


Near-natural forest - A forest whose species composition usually corresponds to site conditions but whose spatial structure is simpler than that in the original forest. These stands were developing under the influence of man and their condition could have been deliberately achieved by man. The spontaneous development was being controlled over a long time and traces of this control are still visible (extraction of dead wood, logging, tending measures, etc.).


Original (virgin, primeval) forest - In the loose concept (commonly used today) this is a forest which is more or less unaffected by man, whose species composition and spatial structure correspond to site conditions. Original forest can also be considered a stand which was affected by man in the past but the measures taken did not result in the distortion of natural developmental trajectory and traces of such an intervention are not recognizable any longer – e.g. creaming of individual trees over a hundred years ago, clearing of dead trees from the stand edges more than fifty years ago, etc.


Prop (stilt) roots - are formed mainly by alder on waterlogged sites.
If the stems are not characterized otherwise, the basal area and stem volume calculations are made in an identical way as those for standing live stems. The term is used for a better orientation at field work with the map.


Stub - A dead standing tree with the missing part of the main stem. Stub is considered to be a stem remainder over 1.5 m with height records rounded to full meters. If the database does not include stub height, the calculation is made with using average height according to flow sheet of heights because the missing part is negligible.


Stump - A stem base part with roots, left after tree fall, whose height is max. 1.5 m. In virgin forest stands with some felling of trees in the past, cutting surfaces are still traceable on stumps at some places. These stumps are differentiated in the database and it is possible to use them for the calculation of approximate volume of extracted wood mass. Stumps after felling are not plotted in the map with a tree mark but with a cross the main sense of the marking being better orientation in the field. If the lying stem is completely disintegrated with its butt (stump) remaining still identifiable, it would be also marked with a cross although it does not originate from timber felling.


Triple-stem tree - An individual with three stems. Item see Twin-stem tree.


Twin-stem tree - An individual with two stems. Provided that the forking is low (up to 2 m stem height), measured are both diameters and the result is taken at calculations as one individual (number of trees) but with two stems (basal areas and stem volumes). If the forking is inaccessible for measurements: - and both stems are important for the volume calculation, an estimate is made of diameter at breast height, and the wording of the above paragraph will hold; - and both stems are unimportant for the volume calculation, it is an actual d1.3 value that is considered in the calculation as one individual and one stem.


Windthrow - A fallen uprooted tree. Stages of disintegration in windthrows are identical as those in lying stems.